By M. Nasib. University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras.
JAK2 V617F allele burden with ruxolitinib treatment in 1997;27(12):3536-3539 buy zithromax 250 mg visa. COMFORT-II purchase 250 mg zithromax free shipping, a phase 3 study comparing the safety and 57 purchase 250 mg zithromax mastercard. Involvement of JAK2 discount zithromax 100mg free shipping, but efﬁcacy of ruxolitinib with best available therapy (BAT) not PI 3-kinase/AKT and MAP kinase pathways 250 mg zithromax otc, in anti- [abstract]. Identiﬁcation of JAK2 as a Mediator analysis of the effect of ruxolitinib on bone marrow morphol- of FIP1L1-PDGFRA-induced eosinophil growth and function ogy in patients with myeloﬁbrosis. Mutations transforming JAK2 fusion proteins in vitro and induces com- and prognosis in primary myeloﬁbrosis. Despite this, the existence of additional genetic events that modify the MPN phenotype, predate JAK2 mutations, and/or contribute to leukemic transformation of MPNs has been suggested. Recently, mutations in several epigenetic modiﬁers have been described in patients with MPNs, including mutations in ASXL1, DNMT3A, EZH2, IDH1, IDH2, and TET2. Moreover, the mutant JAK2 itself has been shown recently to affect histone posttranslational modiﬁcations directly. Here we review the biological and clinical implications of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of MPNs. Somatic mutations activating JAK-STAT signaling growth must be present. In clones with and without the JAK2V617F mutation could be 2005 to 2007, a series of studies found that a very high frequency of identiﬁed. This includes JAK2V617F mutations in 90% to 95% of blasts of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) derived from a JAK2V617F patients with polycythemia vera (PV), 50% to 60% of patients with MPN are frequently JAK2 wild-type. MPN development, inﬂuence the MPN disease phenotype, and/or promote leukemic transformation, several candidate gene-resequenc- ing efforts, array-based gene discovery technologies (including Evidence for alterations outside of JAK-STAT single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and comparative genomic mutations in MPN pathogenesis hybridization arrays), and exome/whole genome sequencing studies In addition to these genetic data indicating a disease-deﬁning high have uncovered a series of somatic mutations in epigenetic modiﬁ- frequency of JAK-STAT pathway activating mutations in MPN ers in MPN patients. This includes mutations in ASXL1, DNMT3A, patients, functional studies using in vitro and in vivo systems have EZH2, IDH1/2, and TET212-16 (Figure 2). Mutations affecting histone posttranslational modiﬁcations in MPN pathogenesis Despite the clear link between JAK-STAT pathway mutations and Outside of JAK2, mutations in genes encoding the core members of MPN pathogenesis, multiple pieces of evidence suggest that genetic the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) and in the polycomb- events outside of JAK-STAT–activating mutations are likely in associated protein ASXL1 represent the most frequently described MPN patients (Figure 1, Table 1). First is the fact that a signiﬁcant mutations that regulate histone modiﬁcations directly in MPN proportion of patients with ET and PMF have no identiﬁable JAK2, patients. Second is the conundrum of how a single mutation in JAK2, which appears to be sufﬁcient for MPN Using Agilent 244K comparative genomic hybridization arrays, pathogenesis, could result in the development of 3 phenotypically Gelsi-Boyer et al discovered mutations in ASXL1 initially through variable diseases. One attractive hypothesis to answer this question the identiﬁcation of a deletion in an MDS patient at the ASXL1 was that additional acquired or inherited genetic modiﬁers outside locus. Moreover, clonal analysis of patients 8% of patients with ET, and 7% to 17% of patients with MF. ASXL1 with JAK2/MPL mutations have consistently demonstrated the is 1 of 3 mammalian homologs of the additional sex combs gene in presence of occasional patients with JAK2 wild-type erythropoietin- Drosophila. The genes are named for the fact that deletion in independent erythroid colony formation—clear evidence that an Drosophila leads to homeotic transformations. This occurs because additional aberration responsible for erythropoietin-independent ASXL appears to regulate the expression of both polycomb group 538 American Society of Hematology Figure 1. Evidence for somatic mutations in genes other than those activating JAK-STAT signaling in MPN patients. In addition, mutations in genes outside of JAK2V617F are thought to play a role in transformation of PV and ET to PMF and in the transformation of chronic MPNs to AML. This observation suggests that the JAK2V617F mutation may not be required for leukemic transformation or that a clone ancestral to the JAK2V617F mutant cell was subject to leukemic transformation. This ﬁnding again suggests that the JAK2V617F mutation may not be the initiating genetic event in MPN pathogenesis. Conditional Mutations in EZH2 in myeloid malignancy patients appear to be deletion of Asxl1 alone in vivo results in a phenotype most loss-of-function mutations. Mutations in groups have performed candidate gene-sequencing studies of addi- EZH2 occur in 10% to 12% of patients with MDS/MPN, 5% to tional PRC2 members in patients with myeloid malignancies. In 15% of patients with MDS, and 5% to 13% of patients with classic addition to somatic loss-of-function mutations in EZH2, rare Hematology 2013 539 Table 1.
Testing for these non-criteria aPL is not currently recom- 2000 by the European Forum on Antiphospholipid Antibodies and mended in routine clinical practice because of a lack of standardiza- contains clinical buy zithromax 500 mg online, laboratory 100 mg zithromax free shipping, and treatment data on 350 patients tion of the assays and the need for prospective studies to assess (http://www cheap zithromax 100 mg on-line. The diagnosis of CAPS can be complicated by the rapidity with which patients develop organ failure order zithromax 100mg, the inability to rule out other Diagnosing CAPS conditions that may present with similar ﬁndings order 250mg zithromax mastercard, and difﬁculties in The term “CAPS” was proposed in 1992 following reports of interpreting aPL testing. Positive aCL testing can result from patients with an accelerated form of APS who presented with infections that frequently coexist or precipitate CAPS and LA coagulopathy, ischemic necrosis of the extremities, and presence of testing can be affected by anticoagulant therapy that is empirically aPLs. Proposed diagnostic and classiﬁcation criteria for CAPS were initiated in these patients. This issue was addressed by a Cata- published in 2003 (Table 2)7 and subsequently validated. Deﬁnite strophic APS Task Force, which proposed updated diagnostic CAPS is classiﬁed with evidence of multisystem (3 or more) organ algorithms to assist clinicians manage patients with suspected CAPS. CAPS develops history of APS or persistent aPL positivity, the number of organ in 1% of patients with APS,1 but is associated with a 30% thromboses developing in 1 week, histopathologic ﬁndings of mortality rate in the absence of treatment. Almost half of the microthrombosis on biopsy, and alternate diagnoses for the throm- botic ﬁndings. Preliminary criteria for the classiﬁcation of CAPS Although APS and CAPS share similar features, the CAPS registry Criteria has highlighted unique aspects to the latter condition. Evidence of involvement of 3 or more organs, systems and/or patients with CAPS, a precipitating factor can be identiﬁed, with tissues* infection and surgery being the most common. Development of manifestations simultaneously or in 1 week manifestations of CAPS differ in their distribution compared with 3. Conﬁrmation by histopathology of small vessel occlusion in at least patients with APS. In contrast to APS, in which involvement of the 1 organ or tissue† deep veins of the extremities and pulmonary embolism predomi- 4. Laboratory conﬁrmation of the presence of aPL antibodies‡ nate, patients with CAPS manifest with small vessel occlusion and Classiﬁcation criteria most commonly present with abdominal pain and intraabdominal Deﬁnite CAPS All 4 criteria present thrombosis (kidneys, adrenal glands, spleen, pancreas, and mesen- Probable CAPS tery). The multiorgan involvement of CAPS typically manifests All 4 criteria but with involvement of only 2 organs, systems, and/or with renal failure (present in 71% of patients), respiratory failure tissues (64%), and central nervous system involvement (62%). Another All 4 criteria but with the absence of repeat detection of aPLs at important feature of CAPS is the systemic inﬂammatory response least 12 weeks apart due to the early death of a patient who syndrome, which is triggered in response to the tissue necrosis from had never been tested for aPLs before the CAPS event underlying small vessel occlusion. The treatment of CAPS is Criteria 1, 2, and 4 therefore based on addressing thrombosis as well as the inﬂamma- Criteria 1, 3, and 4 and the development of a third event after more tory response. Renal In contrast to the original Sapporo Criteria, the Sydney Criteria involvement deﬁned by 50% rise in serum creatinine, severe systemic hypertension ( 180/100mmHg),and/orproteinuria( 500mg/24h). An understanding of the antigenic target of pathologic aPLs thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity, with ORs for thrombosis may explain these laboratory ﬁndings. There 194 patients with persistent LA and/or aCL, the highest incidence of appear to be 2 types of aCL: anti- 2GPI–dependent aCLs, which are thrombosis was found in patients with persistent LA who were also associated with thrombosis and pregnancy complications, and positive for anti- 2GPI and anti-prothrombin antibodies measured anti- GPI–independent aCL antibodies, which appear to be associ- at 8. The latter antibodies are generally transient whether aPL proﬁles will affect APS classiﬁcation and inﬂuence and are not associated with thrombosis. Similarly, autoantibodies against 2GPI were risk have not been speciﬁcally studied in patients with CAPS or in subsequently identiﬁed to have LA activity. Patients with SLE have an increased risk of thrombosis compared with the general population, and those who also have The laboratory assays measuring LA, aCLs, and anti- 2GPI antibod- 30 isolated but persistently positive aPL appear to be at further risk. Assays for LA appear to detect the pathologic aPLs Antithrombotic treatment of APS better than aCL or anti- GPI assays. However, the optimal 2 2 Antibodies that bind domain I of GPI appear to correlate with antithrombotic agent, intensity of anticoagulation, and duration of 2 thrombosis and pregnancy complications compared with antibodies treatment remain controversial, particularly for nonvenous throm- that bind other domains. Further complicating treatment in patients with APS is appear to result in triple positivity in the laboratory assays, the balance between thrombosis and hemorrhage, because many of identifying patients who are at highest risk of thrombotic complica- these patients have thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and other comorbidities that contribute to increased bleeding risks. Other factors that predict thrombosis appear to be persistence of aPLs and a high aPL titer, which resulted in the inclusion of these criteria in the Sydney Criteria. Similarly, there appears to be no There have been 2 randomized trials comparing standard-intensity association between thrombosis or pregnancy loss in patients only 24 (INR 2. In contrast, LA appears to be more 34,35 17 patients with APS meeting the current criteria. The majority of strongly associated with thrombosis and pregnancy complications, the patients in these studies had a ﬁrst episode venous thrombosis, although there are conﬂicting data that suggest isolated LA may not 22,25 and the study results have since been interpreted as being applicable be associated with elevated thrombotic risk. The ELISA assays to this speciﬁc subset of patients with APS. These studies found no for aCLs and anti- 2GPI have been plagued by poor standardization 26 difference in the rates of recurrent thrombosis or major bleeding, and unreliable results.
In addition buy 500 mg zithromax, disease- and treatment-speciﬁc and the aforementioned results observational and noncontrolled prospective studies have generated should not be automatically applied outside of HL and ABVD buy generic zithromax 100 mg online, hypotheses supporting the concept of early (interim) risk assessment respectively buy cheap zithromax 250mg on-line. Moreover cheap zithromax 250 mg on line, results of randomized phase 3 clinical trials Current treatment paradigms for early-stage HL incorporating response-adapted treatment strategies based on in- A common current treatment recommendation for early-stage HL terim FDG-PET/CT to guide treatment decisions have been com- patients with a favorable risk proﬁle involves CMT consisting of 2-3 pleted recently in an attempt to answer the question of whether cycles of ABVD followed by 20-30 Gy of involved ﬁeld radio- interim FDG-PET/CT is a compass for safe navigation in HL safe 100 mg zithromax. Commonly recom- There are also multiple novel FDG-PET/CT applications using mended therapy for early-stage patients with an unfavorable (inter- quantitative techniques, and new imaging modalities are being mediate) risk proﬁle includes 4 cycles of chemotherapy followed by investigated for the potential incorporation into clinical care for 30 Gy IFRT/ISRT. In addition, chemotherapy alone for 4-6 cycles better management of HL patients. It is important versus chemotherapy with absolute improvements ranging from 3% to note that these criteria were not recommended for interim to 7%. Overall survival (OS) rates were similar in each study, FDG-PET/CT evaluation. A more accurate method for measuring although ﬁnal analysis of the National Cancer Institute of Canada response versus a dichotomous dataset would be a continuous Clinical Trials Group (NCIC-CTG) Eastern Cooperative Oncology variable with a categorical scoring system, such as the Deauville Group (ECOG) HD. Such a scoring system is also adaptable as study treatment progression) was improved by 6% with CMT versus goals and end points change. A high positive predictive value (PPV) chemotherapy alone, whereas OS rates were identical at 95%. To address these needs, the Deauville Improvement in acute disease control (eg, PFS) is well documented 5PS was developed to serve as a categorical reading scheme that has in early-stage HL patients who receive CMT versus chemotherapy different positivity thresholds to adjust for the intended treatment alone; however, this has not translated to an improvement in OS. Therefore, the preferred Collectively, initial reports of interim FDG-PET/CT for early-stage treatment of HL patients with early-stage disease continues to be HL demonstrated a consistently high NPV and a low to moderate strongly debated in part because of the overarching goal of PPV in relation to treatment outcome. The high incidence of long-term OS with preserved quality of life. Thus, the most attractive application of a PET- ered. The functional imaging modality, FDG-PET/CT, has been response–adapted strategy in early-stage HL is likely de-escalation examined as a tool to direct when treatment should be deintensiﬁed of therapy (eg, omission of consolidative radiation therapy) for or escalated based on interim results. Interim PET/CT in early-stage HL Observational and prospective studies without treatment Phase 2 clinical trials using response-adapted strategies modiﬁcation in early-stage HL FDG-PET/CT may provide prognostic information at the individual There have been only a handful of phase 2 clinical studies completed patient level, allowing early in vivo evaluation of chemotherapy using a response-adapted strategy with interim FDG-PET/CT for sensitivity. It should be highlighted that most initial observational early-stage HL. Le Roux et al reported results in patients with early- studies reporting on the potential value of interim FDG-PET/CT as a and advanced-stage HL patients undergoing treatment with a response- response predictor included mixed proﬁles of HL patients with 28 9 adapted strategy after 4 cycles of ABVD (ie, PET-4; Table 1). Furthermore, there is comparatively much I/II nonbulky patients (n 26), PET-4 patients without progressive less data regarding the predictive value of interim PET in early- disease on CT or patients with CR on CT regardless of FDG-PET/CT stage HL versus advanced-stage HL, especially in favorable early- 12,14,15,18,22,38 ﬁndings received only IFRT. In the observational study by Gallamini and advanced-stage disease (n 44), those with negative PET-4 received 4 Hutchings that ignited an intense interest into response-adapted more cycles of ABVD. The remaining 28 patients with positive PET-4 therapy in HL, only a minority of patients had early-stage disease and no CR on CT underwent autologous stem cell transplantation. The and most of these patients had adverse risk factors (ie, unfavorable/ 12 NPV and PPV with PET-4 for 2-year PFS were 95% and 16%, intermediate early-stage HL). The low PPV reﬂects the likely negative impact that therapeutic intensiﬁcation had on the predictive value of In a retrospective analysis of 85 HL patients who had interim interim FDG-PET/CT results. FDG-PET/CT after 2-3 cycles of ABVD, the predictive power of FDG-PET/CT was much less robust for early-stage versus advanced- 39 Dann et al reported preliminary results from an ongoing phase 2 stage HL patients (Figure 2A,B). Interim FDG-PET/CT was study examining response-adapted therapy that included early-stage prognostic for 2-year PFS among the 57 early-stage HL patients 40 HL (Table 1), whereas other phase 2 prospective studies have (P. Interestingly, Ann Arbor stage retained CALGB-led early-stage response-adapted studies await long-term strong prognostic signiﬁcance on multivariate analysis with interim follow-up and completion of patient accrual (Table 1). Among patients with early-stage disease, with bulky disease. Completed phase 3 clinical trials using response-adapted Other investigators have reported similar PFS differences for strategies in early-stage HL interim FDG-PET/CT and FDG-PET/CT groups (P. The European Organisation for This study was limited by its retrospective design and variable Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)-led H10F and H10U FDG-PET/CT timing (intervals of PET 2-4), although the results studies randomized patients with favorable and unfavorable early-stage have since been corroborated. In a prospective study of 88 patients with early-stage nonbulky the experimental arms of H10F and H10U had treatment intensiﬁed to HL treated with a nonstandard chemotherapy regimen of AVG BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, (doxorubicin, vinblastine, gemcitabine), 2-year PFS rates were 88% vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone)-escalated and INRT. With rela- and 54% for FDG-PET-2 and FDG-PET-2 groups, respectively tively early follow-up, preplanned interim analyses were performed for (P. At that point, 1 event had Hematology 2014 137 Figure 2. Shown is the PFS according to the result of interim FDG-PET/CT (status-post 2-3 ABVD cycles) of 57 early-stage (A) and 28 advanced-stage (B) HL patients. Treatment was continued regardless of FDG-PET/CT result.
Grading the strength of the evidence was first performed by one reviewer and independently checked by a second reviewer and differences were resolved by consensus generic 500 mg zithromax visa. Among the multitude of outcomes assessed in trials of drugs for fibromyalgia purchase 100 mg zithromax with visa, we focused on rating the strength of evidence for only a subset of 6 that we judged to represent the most clinically important and reliable: pain generic 100mg zithromax with visa, fatigue cheap 250mg zithromax overnight delivery, proportion of patients with a 50% or greater improvement in symptoms 250 mg zithromax otc, mean change in Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Total Score, overall adverse events, and withdrawals due to adverse events. Drugs for fibromyalgia 15 of 86 Final Original Report Drug Effectiveness Review Project 34 Table 2. Definitions of the grades of overall strength of evidence Grade Definition High confidence that the evidence reflects the true effect. Further research is very unlikely to High change our confidence in the estimate of effect. Moderate confidence that the evidence reflects the true effect. Further research may change our Moderate confidence in the estimate of the effect and may change the estimate. Low confidence that the evidence reflects the true effect. Further research is likely to change our Low confidence in the estimate of the effect and is likely to change the estimate. Insufficient Evidence either is unavailable or does not permit estimation of an effect. Data Synthesis We constructed evidence tables showing the study characteristics, quality ratings, and results for all included studies. We reviewed studies using a hierarchy of evidence approach, where the best evidence is the focus of our synthesis for each question, population, intervention, and outcome addressed. Studies that evaluated one drug for fibromyalgia against another provided direct evidence of comparative effectiveness and adverse event rates. Direct comparisons were preferred over indirect comparisons; similarly, effectiveness and long-term safety outcomes were preferred to efficacy and short-term tolerability outcomes. In theory, trials that compare an included drug for fibromyalgia with any other nonincluded treatment or with placebos can also provide evidence about effectiveness. This is known as an indirect comparison and can be difficult to interpret for a number of reasons, primarily heterogeneity of trial populations, interventions, and outcomes assessment. Data from indirect comparisons are used to support direct comparisons, where they exist, and are used as the primary comparison where no direct comparisons exist. Indirect comparisons should be interpreted with caution. Meta-analyses were conducted to summarize data and obtain more precise estimates on outcomes for which studies were homogeneous enough to provide a meaningful combined estimate. In order to determine whether meta-analysis could be meaningfully performed, we considered the quality of the studies and the heterogeneity among studies in design, patient population, interventions, and outcomes. When meta-analysis could not be preformed, the data were summarized qualitatively. For continuous outcomes, we used the mean difference between treatment and placebo groups as the effect measure, which we estimated based on mean change scores and standard errors from baseline to follow up for each group from each study. Hedge’s g, one of the measures for standardized mean differences, was used if different instruments (scales) were used by different studies for the same outcome. For dichotomous outcomes, relative risk was used as 35 the effect measure. All combined effects were estimated using random-effects models. The Q 2 statistic and the I statistic (the proportion of variation in study estimates due to heterogeneity) 36, 37 were calculated to assess heterogeneity in effects between studies. Due to the small number of studies, it was not feasible to use subgroup analysis and meta-regression to explore heterogeneity. We conducted sensitivity analyses to check the impact of dosage, length of follow-up, and definitions of outcome on the results. Because head-to-head evidence was sparse, we used the method described by Bucher, et al. The magnitude of difference was characterized using relative risk ratio for relative risks and difference of mean difference for mean differences. Negative (−) difference of mean differences were interpreted as suggesting that drug A is associated with a greater reduction in fibromyalgia symptoms than drug B. Peer Review We requested and received peer review of the report from 4 content experts.
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