By J. Esiel. La Sierra University. 2018.
Patients should be referred to Complementary therapies in neurology 148 qualified acupuncture providers order fildena 100 mg online, and follow-up appointments scheduled to monitor their treatment response fildena 25 mg low cost. Physiological and psychological explanations for the mechanism of acupuncture as a treatment for chronic pain purchase 25 mg fildena amex. Acupuncture: neuropeptide release produced by electrical stimulation of different frequencies buy generic fildena 150 mg. Naloxone fails to reverse pain thresholds elevated by acupuncture: acupuncture analgesia reconsidered generic fildena 50mg online. Findings of the correlation between acupoints and corresponding brain cortical using functional MRI. Acupuncture modulates the limbic system and subcortical gray structures of the human brain: evidence from fMRI studies in normal subjects. Neuronal specificity of acupuncture response: a fMRI study with electroacupuncture. Adverse events following acupuncture: prospective survey of 32000 consultations with doctors and physiotherapists. The York acupuncture safety study: prospective survey of 34000 treatments by traditional acupuncturists. A randomized comparative trial of acupuncture versus transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for chronic back pain in the elderly. Acupuncture for chronic low back pain: a randomized placebo- controlled study with long-term followup. Acupuncture treatment of chronic low-back pain—a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial with 9-month follow-up. Acupuncture for recurrent headaches: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Acupuncture in the prophylactic treatment of migraine without aura: a comparison with flunarizine. Acupuncture as a treatment for emporomandibular joint dysfunction: a systematic review of randomized trials. Reviews of acupuncture for chronic neck pain: pitfalls in conducting systemic reviews. Carpal tunnel syndrome pain treated with low- level laser and microamperes transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation: a controlled study. Acupuncture and transcutaneous nerve stimulation in stroke rehabilitation: a randomized, controlled trial. Use of electrical stimulation at acupuncture points for the treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy in a child: a case report. Clinical and biochemical observations during treatment of depression with electroacupuncture: a pilot study. The effects of high and low frequency electroacupuncture in pain after lower abdominal surgery. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137:965–73 7 Naturopathic medicine in neurological disorders Lynne Shinto and Carlo Calabrese Complementary Therapies in Neurology: An Evidence-Based Approach Edited by Barry S. Oken ISBN 1-84214-200-3 Copyright © 2004 by The Parthenon Publishing Group, London NATUROPATHIC MEDICINE John Sheel and Benedict Lust founded and named the practice of naturopathy at the end of the 19th century. Their aim was to coalesce several traditions of natural medicine including herbalism, diet therapy, hydrotherapy and homeopathy into a single practice that contrasted with the often harmful chemical interventions of the time. Naturopathic medicine is now a worldwide profession in the USA, Germany, Canada, the UK, Australia and India. In the USA and Canada, naturopathic medicine is a primary health- care profession which functions to promote health, and to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. The intent of a naturopathic doctor (ND) is to stimulate the self-healing capacities of the individual by using a number of therapeutic modalities which include botanical medicines, clinical nutrition and nutritional supplements, homeopathy, physical medicine (physiotherapy, hydrotherapy, manipulation) and psychological counseling. The practice is guided by principles most recently articulated by the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians (AANP) in 1989: (1) First, do no harm. The multifactorial nature of health and disease requires attention to the physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, social and ecological aspects of our nature. Diagnosis and treatment that are constitutional and holistic are among the foundations of naturopathy.
It is generally agreed that multielectrodes constitute the most promising technique for acquiring raw data that could be used to drive a useful motor BMI generic 25mg fildena otc. The downside remains that direct implantation of electrodes within the brain is required purchase 150mg fildena with mastercard, with all the inherent risks of any neurosurgical technique including neurological injury discount fildena 25 mg overnight delivery, bleeding cheap 25 mg fildena otc, and infection (as indicated in Figure 7 purchase fildena 100 mg with mastercard. Obviously, a noninvasive technique would be ideal, but no suitable candidates for such an externally recorded signal exists. For reasons mentioned above, the multielectrode technique is currently the most suitable for developing a BMI that could be implantable in humans in the near future. Indeed, single neuron versions of such a human BMI using implanted neurotrophic electrodes were implemented and published by Kennedy and Bakay. This goal of real-time multineuron recording has become possible only recently, with the advent of very fast, real-time multiple channel amplification and processing of multineuronal signals to allow updating of the output control stream at up to 100 Hz. Sizes of electrodes and biocompatibility of electrode material Many different approaches to address these issues are underway. The two main types of electrode designs used for research today that could conceivably be adapted for use in a BMI application are microwire arrays and printed circuit silicon micro- electrodes. Microwire arrays consist of individual wires made of stainless steel, tungsten, or Pt/Ir, with diameters of 15 to 80 µm. The wires are coated with insulation and the tips are cut bluntly so that the actual recording surface is only the tip of the wire. However, blunt tips do not penetrate the coverings of the brain (pia and arachnoid), in contrast to traditional sharp tungsten microelectrodes. This problem can be overcome for deep (subcortical) recordings by opening the pia surgically and inserting the electrodes through a cannula or guide tube. Surgical opening of the pia can also remove critical blood vessels, irritate the cortex, possibly lead to seizures, and sufficiently damage the underlying cortex that it may be difficult to obtain recordings even from cortical layer V. The recording wires are then attached to a connector which, after implantation, is attached to a headstage where amplification, filtering, and processing of the action potential signals begins. Using the microelectrode wire arrays, each microwire can record up to four single units with an overall yield of approximately one unit per electrode implanted. The recordings remained relatively stable with only minimum decay in the number of individual neurons identified over a period of months to years. This fact becomes important in analyzing and transforming the data stream into a useful output that can adapt itself with a minimum of time and effort on the part of the patient. If different neurons are active daily, does the BMI have to be re- trained daily or is the ensemble information sufficiently stable that the overall population retains training information? Many versions of silicon and biologically inspired electrodes for detecting output signals from single or multiple neurons have been developed but their stability over time and local brain damage have been questioned. The microwires have the advantage of low resistance and ability to detect multiple neurons simultaneously because of their relatively large surface areas. Many years of neurophysiology research generated a large body of knowledge about the motor cortex and related areas, perhaps due to their surface location and availability. Equally compelling data indicate that subcortical locations such as nuclei of the basal ganglia, and particularly the thalamus, contain the information necessary to coordinate motor movements of the extremities. In fact, passing electrodes to deep brain targets is now a standard procedure, usually performed for DBS placement. While deep brain targets may be technically less challenging, most research paradigms that could be adapted to a BMI have arisen from work focusing on the cortex, making the cortex a target as likely as the subcortical region for a human BMI. Premotor cortical areas involved with motor planning have smaller cells that are more difficult to record from, but are theorized to contain more pertinent information for driving a BMI. These and other regions have been studied extensively and shown to be important for generating motor commands that produce reaching movements. Additionally, most motor information is carried through the thalamus prior to reaching M1, including the output of large motor loops from the basal ganglia (presumably for directing initiation and overall motor plan selection) and the cerebellum (for error correction during the motion), which converge on the motor thalamus. It is also known that cortical reorganization can take place based on learning or practice of fine motor tasks of the fingers in terms of expansion of the cortex dedicated to the fingers involved in the motor task. An interesting study suggests that after learning to use tools to reach for items, rhesus monkeys showed changes in visual receptive field firing correlating to © 2005 by CRC Press LLC incorporation of the tools into their body schemata. Also, only humans can determine whether the effort to learn to use and manipulate a device would be worth the final function, in other words, determining whether a device is useful for enhancement of their motor or communication functions. For a motor neuro- prosthesis, this requires combining or translating the multineuron signals into a robust motor control signal such as three-dimensional arm movement in space that can be replicated on a robot.
This is why the second phase is also called strual cycle purchase fildena 100 mg on-line, which begins during puberty and ends at the “proliferative phase fildena 150 mg generic. GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 1335 The ovulation phase occurs in response to a surge in previous 12 months generic 25 mg fildena free shipping. Although the DSM-IV definition of luteinizing hormone and is marked by the release of a PMDD as a mental disorder is controversial because of mature egg from the follicle fildena 50mg mastercard. Ovulation usually occurs fear that it could be used to justify prejudice or job dis- on day 14 generic 50mg fildena with mastercard. During this phase, the empty follicle, now searchers estimates that 3–8% of women of childbearing called the corpus luteum, releases the hormone proges- age meet the strict DSM-IV criteria for PMDD, with an- terone which further prepares the uterus for implantation other 13–18% having symptoms severe enough to inter- of an embryo. If pregnancy does not occur, the fall in progesterone levels initiates the onset of a new menstrual Causes & symptoms cycle. However, if pregnancy does occur, progesterone Menstruation is not an illness, but a normal part of levels remain high and the endometrium is not shed. However, menstrual problems do In the United States, menstruation typically begins at occur, and are due to varying causes. As a girl reaches puberty, the pi- systemic diseases may delay puberty and menstruation. The interac- gymnasts, ballerinas, and long-distance runners because tion between these hormones and the hormones estrogen of insufficient body fat. Amenorrhea associated with ath- and progesterone causes the lining of the uterus to swell letic training and professional dance is a growing health and thicken in anticipation of a fertilized egg. If the egg concern, however, because it often occurs together with is not fertilized, the lining is discharged through the eating disorders and a loss of bone mass that can lead to vagina, resulting in menstrual bleeding. Secondary amenorrhea refers to the absence of men- Menstrual problems struation after an interval of normal menstruation. It is Women may experience menstrual cycles that fall out- identified as not menstruating for three months in fe- side of the norm as described above. Menstrual problems males with irregular menstrual cycles, six months in fe- include missing a period, change in the length of the cycle, males with normal menstrual cycles, and 18 months in changes in the flow, color, or consistency of menstrual females who had just started menstruating. Women may also experience emotional distress or Menopause takes place when the ovaries stop producing wide mood swings during the luteal phase of the men- estrogen, causing periods to become irregular and then strual cycle. It generally occurs when a woman is between 48 Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM-IV, lists and 52 years of age. To meet full criteria Dysfunctional and abnormal uterine bleeding for PMDD, a patient must have at least five out of 11 emotional or physical symptoms during the week pre- Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is excessive or irreg- ceding the menses for most menstrual cycles over the ular bleeding from the uterus. It is caused by uncon- 1336 GALE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE 2 trolled estrogen production that leads to excessive build A deficiency in vitamin A or iron, or hypothy- up of the endometrium. Painful heavy pe- riods may be linked to endometriosis, fibroids, pelvic in- Abnormal uterine bleeding is excessive bleeding flammatory disease, or the use of an intrauterine device during menstruation, frequent bleeding, and/or irregular (IUD). It has been estimated that the average tampon user Dysmenorrhea will use 11,400 in her lifetime. The use of high- Dysmenorrhea is painful and difficult menstrua- absorbency tampons has been shown to cause toxic tion. Studies have found that 60–92% of adolescents suf- shock syndrome (TSS), a bacterial infection caused fer from dysmenorrhea. It usually begins six to 12 when tampons left in too long create tiny breaks in the months following menarche. Symptoms may be severe vaginal lining and allow bacteria to enter the blood enough to miss work or school, and prevent participation stream. TSS is now uncommon, orrhea may include long menstrual periods, obesity, but women have died from it in the past. To reduce the risk of TSS, the United States Food Primary dysmenorrhea is believed to be caused by high and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that levels of prostaglandins (fatty acids that stimulate muscle women use the lowest absorbency tampon required to contractions, among other activities) which cause painful meet their needs. Alternatives to rhea occur when bleeding starts and may include moderate tampons are sanitary pads, reusable menstrual collection to severe menstrual pain (crampy, spasmodic, and labor-like cups, and washable cloth pads. A more recent controversy was sparked in the early 1990s over the use of dioxin in tampons. Dioxin is a Secondary dysmenorrhea is caused by conditions chemical byproduct of bleach that is a carcinogen. Tam- such as endometriosis, abnormalities of the pelvic organs, pons in the United States are bleached with chlorine dur- pelvic inflammatory disease, fibroids, ovarian cysts,tu- ing production so they will have a fresher appearance. The symptoms depend upon the specific cause of In 1992, an investigation revealed that FDA scien- dysmenorrhea, but pain is the hallmark symptom. Further FDA research has determined that the tampons Heavy periods currently manufactured are done so through the use of a dioxin-free process.
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