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Thus buy sildenafil 25 mg free shipping, initial doses • Promote adequate nutrition order sildenafil 50mg amex, with nutritious ﬂuids generic 100mg sildenafil overnight delivery, sup- should be given where appropriate supplies and personnel are plements order 100mg sildenafil visa, and snacks when indicated order 50mg sildenafil mastercard. Because severe, • Inform clients about diagnostic test results, planned life-threatening adverse effects may occur with high-dose changes in therapeutic regimens, and evidence of progress. With darbepoetin alfa and epoetin alfa, dosage is adjusted • Consult other health care providers (eg, physician, dietitian, according to response. With epoetin, dosage is adjusted to achieve dence of infections (eg, meticulous personal hygiene, and maintain a hematocrit value of 30% to 36%. Dosage should be nisms and other body defenses by healthy lifestyle habits, increased if hematocrit does not increase by 5 to 6 points such as a nutritious diet, adequate rest and sleep, and after 8 weeks of drug therapy and is below the recom- avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. When doses are changed, measurable dif- • Assist clients or caregivers in learning how to prepare and ferences in hematocrit do not occur for 2 to 6 weeks because inject darbepoetin alfa, epoetin alfa, ﬁlgrastim, an inter- of the time required for maturation of RBCs and their re- feron, or oprelvekin, when indicated. Thus, the hematocrit should be Evaluation checked twice weekly for at least 2 to 6 weeks after any dosage change. In general, dose adjustments should not be • Determine the number and type of infections that have made more often than once monthly. Optimal dosages for interferons and aldesleukin have not • Compare current CBC reports with baseline values for been established. For clients who experience severe adverse changes toward normal levels (eg, WBC count 5000 to 3 reactions with interferon alfa, dosage should be reduced by 10,000/mm ). Instead, one or more • Observe and interview for decreased numbers or severity of disease symptoms. Inpatient Versus Outpatient Settings for Drug Administration Laboratory Monitoring Choosing inpatient or outpatient administration of hematopoi- With darbepoetin and epoetin, iron stores (eg, transferrin etic and immunostimulant therapy depends on many factors, saturation and serum ferritin) should be measured before including the condition of the client, route of drug adminis- and periodically during treatment. Virtually all patients tration, expected duration of therapy, and potential severity eventually require supplemental iron. Check hemoglobin 664 SECTION 7 DRUGS AFFECTING HEMATOPOIESIS AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM CLIENT TEACHING GUIDELINES Blood Cell and Immune System Stimulants General Considerations ness, cough, difﬁculty breathing or wheezing, or visual ✔ Help your body maintain immune mechanisms and other problems. These symptoms may require that the drug be defenses by healthy lifestyle habits, such as a nutritious stopped or the dosage reduced. In addition, avoid preg- diet, adequate rest and sleep, and avoidance of tobacco nancy (use effective contraceptive methods) and avoid and alcohol. Although this is important ✔ Inform any other physician, dentist, or health care pro- with all medications, it is especially important with these. If you are going ✔ Use correct techniques to prepare and inject the medica- to self-inject a medication at home, allow sufﬁcient time tions. Instructions for mixing the drugs should be followed to learn and practice the techniques under the super- exactly. Correct preparation and ✔ With interferons: injection are necessary to increase beneﬁcial effects and ✔ Store in the refrigerator. Edema and breathing ✔ Take at bedtime to reduce some common adverse difﬁculty may be caused by ﬂuid retention, a common ad- effects (eg, ﬂu-like symptoms such as fever, headache, verse effect, and dizziness may result from an irregular fatigue, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting). Neutropenic clients are at high risk for development doses are established. The client is most be done before and during treatment to monitor response and vulnerable to infection when the neutrophil count falls below prevent avoidable adverse reactions. Filgrastim helps to prevent infection by reducing recommended twice weekly during drug administration. With the incidence, severity, and duration of neutropenia associated aldesleukin, these tests plus electrolytes and renal and liver with several chemotherapy regimens. Most clients taking ﬁl- function tests are recommended daily during drug adminis- grastim have fewer days of fever, infection, and antimicrobial tration. In addition, by promoting bone marrow recov- and neutrophil counts, hemoglobin, serum creatinine or creat- ery after a course of cytotoxic antineoplastic drugs, ﬁlgrastim inine clearance, serum albumin, and thyroid-stimulating hor- also may allow higher doses or more timely administration of mone are recommended for all clients before starting therapy, subsequent antitumor drugs. It should then be continued during the period of maximum bone marrow suppression and the lowest neutrophil count Uses in Clients With Cancer (nadir) and during bone marrow recovery. CBC and platelet counts should be performed twice weekly during therapy, Colony-Stimulating Factors and the drug should be stopped if the neutrophil count ex- Filgrastim and sargramostim are used to restore, promote, or ceeds 10,000/mm3. When sargramostim is given to clients accelerate bone marrow function in clients with cancer who with cancer who have had bone marrow transplantation, the are undergoing chemotherapy or bone marrow transplanta- drug should be started 2 to 4 hours after the bone marrow tion. CBC should be done twice weekly during ther- than in other clinical uses, with resultant increases in toxicity. An adequate intake of iron is required for and who have had no opportunistic infections. In addition to dietary sources, a supplement 40% of these clients achieve a therapeutic response that lasts is usually necessary.
At the highest doses Hypovolemic Trauma Hypotension (20 to 50 mcg/kg/min) sildenafil 50 mg for sale, beta activity remains cheap sildenafil 50 mg without a prescription, but increasing Gastrointestinal bleed Tachycardia alpha stimulation (vasoconstriction) may overcome its actions cheap 100 mg sildenafil free shipping. Ruptured aneurysms Cool best sildenafil 25mg, clammy skin Third spacing Dopamine is useful in hypovolemic and cardiogenic shock purchase 25mg sildenafil with visa. Diaphoresis Dehydration Pallor Adequate ﬂuid therapy is necessary for the maximal pressor Oliguria effect of dopamine. Acidosis decreases the effectiveness of Cardiogenic Acute myocardial in- Signs and symptoms dopamine. It acts mainly on Dysrhythmias of decreased Cardiomyopathy cardiac output beta1 receptors in the heart to increase the force of myocardial Distributive contraction with a minimal increase in heart rate. Dobutamine Neurogenic Spinal cord damage Hypotension also may increase blood pressure with large doses. It is less Spinal anesthesia Bradycardia likely to cause tachycardia, dysrhythmias, and increased myo- Severe pain Warm, dry skin cardial oxygen demand than dopamine and isoproterenol. It is Drugs most useful in cases of shock that require increased cardiac Septic Infection (eg, urinary Hypotension tract, upper respira- Cool or warm, dry skin output without the need for blood pressure support. It is tory infections) Hypothermia or hyper- recommended for short-term use only. It may be used with Invasive procedures thermia dopamine to augment the beta1 activity that is sometimes Anaphylactic Contrast dyes Hypotension overridden by alpha effects when dopamine is used alone at Drugs Hives doses greater than 10 mcg/kg/min. Insect bites Bronchospasm Foods Dobutamine has a short plasma half-life and therefore must be administered by continuous IV infusion. A loading 790 SECTION 9 DRUGS AFFECTING THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Drugs at a Glance: Drugs Used for Hypotension and Shock Routes and Dosage Ranges Generic/Trade Name Indications for Use Adults Children Dopamine (Intropin) Increase cardiac output IV 2 to 5 mcg/kg/min initially, gradually Same as adults Treat hypotension increasing to 20–50 mcg/kg/min if Increase urine output necessary. Prepare by adding 200 mg of dopamine to 250 mL of IV ﬂuid for a ﬁnal concentration of 800 mcg/mL or to 500 mL IV ﬂuid for a ﬁnal con- centration of 400 mcg/mL. Reconstitute the 250-mg vial with 10 mL of sterile water or 5% dex- trose injection. The resulting solu- tion should be diluted to at least 50 mL with IV solution before admin- istering (5000 mcg/mL). Add 250 mg of drug to 500 mL of diluent for a concentration of 500 mcg/mL. IV direct injection, 100–1000 mcg of 1:10,000 injection, every 5–15 min, injected slowly. Prepare the solution by adding 1 mL epinephrine 1:1000 to 9 mL sodium chloride injection. Milrinone (Primacor) Increase cardiac output in IV injection (loading dose), 50 mcg/kg cardiogenic shock over 10 min. Norepinephrine Treat hypotension IV infusion, 2–4 mcg/min, to a maxi- IV infusion, 0. Phenylephrine Treat hypotension IV infusion, 100–180 mcg/min initially, SC, IM 0. Prepare solution by adding 10 mg of phenylephrine to 250 or 500 mL of IV ﬂuid. CHAPTER 54 DRUGS USED IN HYPOTENSION AND SHOCK 791 dose is not required because the drug has a rapid onset of ac- cardial contraction, and coronary artery blood ﬂow. It is useful tion and reaches steady state within approximately 10 min- in cardiogenic and septic shock, but reduced renal blood ﬂow utes after the infusion is begun. As Epinephrine is a naturally occurring catecholamine pro- with all drugs used to manage shock, blood pressure should be duced by the adrenal glands. Larger doses act on alpha re- stricts arterioles and raises systolic and diastolic blood pres- ceptors to increase blood pressure. Phenylephrine resembles epinephrine but has fewer Epinephrine is the drug of choice for management of ana- cardiac effects and a longer duration of action. Reduction of phylactic shock because of its rapid onset of action and anti- renal and mesenteric blood ﬂow limit prolonged use. It prevents the release of histamine and other mediators that cause symptoms of anaphylaxis, thereby re- versing vasodilation and bronchoconstriction. In early man- Nursing Notes: Apply Your Knowledge agement of anaphylaxis, it may be given subcutaneously to produce therapeutic effects within 5 to 10 minutes, with peak activity in approximately 20 minutes. Brent Williams, a 24-year-old, comes to the emergency depart- Epinephrine is also used to manage other kinds of shock and ment (ED) following a reaction to a bee sting that involved is usually given by continuous IV infusion. He is treated with doses may be given in emergencies, such as cardiac arrest. It subcutaneous epinephrine, corticosteroids, ﬂuids, and nebulized albuterol.
Then purchase 50 mg sildenafil with amex, host cell genes are coded to produce new viruses (eg generic sildenafil 75mg mastercard, herpesviruses) can survive in host cells viruses discount sildenafil 50mg without a prescription. Also order sildenafil 75 mg otc, autoimmune ing host cell mitosis and becomes part of the inherited diseases may be caused by viral alteration of host cells genetic information of the host cell and its progeny discount sildenafil 25mg otc. Symptoms usually associated with acute viral infec- tase before replication can occur. When the cell is destroyed, the signs and symptoms vary with the type of virus and viruses are released into the blood and surrounding tis- body organs involved. Antibodies are Antiviral Drugs proteins that defend against microbial or viral invasion. They are very speciﬁc (ie, an antibody protects only Few antiviral drugs were available before the AIDS epi- against a speciﬁc virus or other antigen). Since then, numerous drugs have been developed to a person who has had measles, antibody protection (im- treat HIV infection and opportunistic viral infections that munity) develops against future infection by the measles occur in hosts whose immune systems are suppressed by virus, but immunity does not develop against other viral AIDS or immunosuppressant drugs given to organ transplant infections, such as chickenpox or hepatitis. Drug therapy for viral infections is still limited, The protein coat of the virus allows the immune sys- however, because drug development is difﬁcult. Viruses use tem of the host to recognize the virus as a foreign the metabolic and reproductive mechanisms of host cells for invader and to produce antibodies against it. This their own vital functions, and few drugs inhibit viruses with- system works well for most viruses but does not work out being excessively toxic to host tissues. Most of these for the inﬂuenza A virus, which can alter its protein agents inhibit viral reproduction but do not eliminate viruses covering so much and so often that the immune system from tissues. Available drugs are expensive, relatively toxic, does not recognize it as foreign to the body. Protection conferred by chemoprophylaxis is immedi- the viruses from reaching the bloodstream or, if they ate but lasts only while the drug is being taken. Subgroups of are already in the bloodstream, prevent their invasion antiviral drugs are described in the following sections; addi- of host cells. Once the virus has penetrated the cell, it tional characteristics and dosage ranges are listed in the is protected from antibody action and the host de- Drugs at a Glance tables. CHAPTER 39 ANTIVIRAL DRUGS 579 Drugs at a Glance: Drugs for Prevention or Treatment of Selected Viral Infections Routes and Dosage Ranges Generic/Trade Name Indications for Use Adults Children Herpes Virus Infections Acyclovir Oral mucocutaneous lesions Genital herpes, PO 200 mg q4h, ﬁve times daily <12 y: IV 250 mg/m2 q8h (Zovirax) (eg, cold sores, fever blisters) for 10 d for initial infection; 400 mg two times for 7 d Genital herpes daily to prevent recurrence of chronic infec- Herpes simplex encephalitis tion; 200 mg q4h ﬁve times daily for 5 d to Varicella (chickenpox) in immuno- treat recurrence compromised hosts Herpes zoster, PO 800 mg q4h ﬁve times daily Herpes zoster (shingles) in normal for 7–10 d and immunocompromised hosts Chickenpox, PO 20 mg/kg (maximum dose 800 mg) four times daily for 5 d Mucosal and cutaneous herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in immunocompromised hosts (ICH), IV 5 mg/kg infused at constant rate over 1 h, q8h for 7 d Varicella-zoster infections in ICH, IV 10 mg/kg, infused as above, q8h for 7 d HSV encephalitis, IV 10 mg/kg infused as above, q8h for 10 d Topically to lesions q3h, six times daily for 7 d Cidofovir Treatment of CMV retinitis in IV infusion, 5 mg/kg over 1 h, every 2 wk Dosage not established (Vistide) persons with AIDS Famciclovir Acute herpes zoster Herpes zoster, PO 500 mg q8h for 7 d Dosage not established (Famvir) Genital herpes, recurrent Genital herpes, PO 125 mg twice daily for 5 d episodes Foscarnet Treatment of CMV retinitis in CMV retinitis, IV 60 mg/kg q8h for 2–3 wk, (Foscavir) persons with AIDS depending on clinical response, then Treatment of acyclovir-resistant 90–120 mg/kg/d for maintenance mucocutaneous HSV infections HSV infections, IV 40 mg/kg q8–12h for 2–3 wk in immunocompromised clients or until lesions are healed Reduce dosage with impaired renal function Ganciclovir CMV retinitis in immuno- CMV retinitis, IV 5 mg/kg q12h for 14–21 d, (Cytovene) compromised clients then 5 mg/kg once daily for 7 d/wk or Prevention of CMV disease in 6 mg/kg once daily for 5 d/wk or PO 1000 mg clients with organ transplants three times daily for maintenance or advanced HIV infection Prevention in transplant recipients, IV 5 mg/kg once daily 7 d/wk or 6 mg/kg once daily 5 d/wk Prevention in clients with HIV infection, PO 1000 mg three times daily Triﬂuridine Keratoconjunctivitis caused Topically to eye, 1% ophthalmic solution, 1 drop (Viroptic) by herpes viruses q2h while awake (maximum 9 drops/d) until re-epithelialization of corneal ulcer occurs; then 1 drop q4h (maximum 5 drops/d) for 7 d Valacyclovir Herpes zoster and recurrent geni- Herpes zoster, PO 1 g q8h for 7 d (Valtrex) tal herpes in immunocompetent Recurrent genital herpes, PO 500 mg q12h daily clients for 5 d Reduce dosage with renal impairment (creatinine clearance <50 mL/min) Vidarabine Keratoconjunctivitis caused by IV 15 mg/kg/d dissolved in 2500 mL of ﬂuid and (Vira-A) herpes viruses given over 12–24 h daily for 10 d Topically to eye, 3% ophthalmic ointment, applied q3h until re-epithelialization, then twice daily for 7 d Inﬂuenza Virus Infection Amantadine Prevention or treatment of PO 200 mg once daily or 100 mg twice daily 9 to 12 y: PO 100 mg (Symmetrel) inﬂuenza A infection Reduce dosage with renal impairment (creatinine twice daily clearance <50 mL/min) 1 to 9 y: PO 4. Drugs for Herpesvirus Infections causes granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia in approxi- mately 20% to 40% of recipients. These hematologic effects Acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir penetrate virus- often occur during the ﬁrst 2 weeks of therapy but may occur infected cells, become activated by an enzyme, and inhibit viral at any time. Foscarnet and cidofovir should genital herpes, in which it decreases viral shedding and the du- be used cautiously in patients with renal disease. It does not eliminate inactive Triﬂuridine and vidarabine are applied topically to treat virus in the body and thus does not prevent recurrence of the keratoconjunctivitis and corneal ulcers caused by the herpes disease unless oral drug therapy is continued. Triﬂuridine should not be also used for treatment of herpes simplex infections in im- used longer than 21 days because of possible ocular toxicity. Prolonged or repeated courses of Vidarabine also is given IV to treat herpes zoster infections acyclovir therapy may result in the emergence of acyclovir- in patients whose immune systems are impaired and en- resistant viral strains, especially in immunocompromised cephalitis caused by herpes simplex viruses. Acyclovir can be given orally, intravenously (IV), or ap- be reduced with impaired renal function. IV use is recommended for severe genital herpes in nonimmunocompromised patients and any herpes infections in immunocompromised patients. Oral and IV Drugs for HIV Infection and AIDS acyclovir are excreted mainly in urine, and dosage should be de- (Antiretrovirals) creased in patients who are elderly or have renal impairment. Famciclovir and valacyclovir are oral drugs for herpes Four classes of drugs currently exist for the management zoster and recurrent genital herpes. Famciclovir is metabo- of HIV infection: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors lized to penciclovir, its active form, and excreted mainly in (NRTIs), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non- the urine. Valacyclovir is metabolized to acyclovir by en- nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and zymes in the liver and/or intestine and is eventually excreted protease inhibitors. As with acyclovir, dosage of these drugs must be viral replication in human host cells (Fig. In addition, foscarnet is used to treat acyclovir- Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors resistant mucocutaneous herpes simplex infections in people with impaired immune functions.
Also I ﬁnd it more productive to go for root causes whenever possible and make adjustments there rather than confront the more superﬁcial causes buy 50mg sildenafil free shipping. Te omission of insulin was only a mechanism for something at a more profound level of organization purchase 25mg sildenafil visa. My model for this approach to Joyce was my notion that she and her husband had opposite brain processes and that they were not communicating buy sildenafil 50mg. If that were the case discount sildenafil 50 mg without a prescription, then correction of that process would have a much more pervasive beneﬁcial eﬀect than merely attacking the cessation of insulin injections 100mg sildenafil visa. My representa- tion that a correction of communication between Joyce and her husband based on the model of visual and auditory ways of com- municating may or may not be correct. Only repeated observations 132 Symptoms of Unknown Origin with other patients would conﬁrm or refute the model. Again, these ideas call out for well-designed studies and experiments to test the notions of auditory or visual speech in other patients. I report the case here because the turnaround was so deﬁnite and dramatic. All four had been highly successful in their school activities and academic per- formances. Te father was a high school principal, and the mother taught library science. To say simply that Marie was cheerful would be a major un- derstatement. She bubbled with cheerfulness and happiness even when she discussed her paralysis. To my notion, her outward behavior was inappropriate for the gravity of her situation. It has been called la belle indiﬀerence and usually is associated with patients who are labeled hysterical. While the term is old and descriptive, it dictates no speciﬁc therapy or ap- proach. It certainly is no help to tell a patient that she or he is hys- terical. I do not let the term get in the way of approaching the patient in a direct and honest manner based on what I see and hear with my own eyes and ears. I try to disregard the label when I am encountering the patients or their families. I ﬁnd that if I approach the patient as if the diagnosis is unknown, I do better in outlining a helpful strat- egy. I spent the ﬁrst several outpatient visits going over data from earlier doctors and hospital admissions. Te history was very com- plicated, and I do not want to bore you with all the details. It is, however, essential to give you enough information so that you can follow the case and my clinical reasoning. Marie had never been sick a day in her life until about a year and a half before I saw her. Te ﬁrst sign of her illness was a high fever and severe muscle aches, particularly in her calf muscles. She also developed some en- larged lymph nodes in her neck and a low-grade sore throat. Te indirect test (all that was available at that time) for mononucleo- sis was positive, and a diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis was made. She had the typical blood-smear ﬁndings of atypical lympho- cytes, which reverted to normal within a month. I had no reason to quarrel with the diagnosis as correct at the time it was made. It there- fore was assumed that she had infectious mononucleosis and that she would get well symptomatically. Marie had seen a number of specialists and had been admitted on three occasions to other hospitals. Tey included three separate spinal taps, a myelogram of the spine, electromyograms, a nerve biopsy, and a muscle biopsy from the calf. Using my most vivid imagination, I could not think of a single test that had not been done that would ﬁt the case. I ordered some repeat blood tests to reaﬃrm their negativity and waited.
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